To recommend, review, and provide the scientific data to support the general mission of the CWA.


  1. Define the key technical issues that need additional research and or monitoring to support informed decision-making on the Middle San Pedro portion of the San Pedro watershed.
  2. Assist in identifying and securing funding and other resources for technical studies.
  3. Provide a forum for sharing technical information and coordinating research related to the San Pedro Watershed.
  4. Interpret research and monitoring results to the Community Watershed Alliance and broader community.

Technical Questions

List of technical questions reviewed and revised annually by membership:


The following is a list of the Community Watershed Alliance Technical Advisory Committee Members and Participants(10/2007). The group is coordinated by Pamela Beilke, Chair.

Call or e-mail Pamela or Mary McCool to be added to the CWA_TAC mailing list.

Pamela Beilke                                  520- 720-2114     PBeilke@apachenitro.com
(Apache Nitrogen Products)

Mary McCool, Executive Director      520-609-2738       watergroup@aol.com
(Community Watershed Alliance)

Show List

Affiliation Name Title
Mel Taylor
Southeast Arizona Community Liaison
Tom Whitmer
Statewide Planner
Apache Nitrogen
Pamela Beilke
Director of Compliance and Quality
Arizona State Parks
Joanne Roberts
Nate Dietrich
Cochise Cooperative Extensions
Carmen Miller
Cochise County Shon Brady
Cochise County Hydrologist
CWA Steering Committee
Mary McCool
Executive Director
NEMO Kristine Uhlman
Geologist, Hydrologist
NRCS Dave Matthews
District Conservationist
Ret. Consultant Sandy Kunzer
TNC Matt Killeen
USDA-ARS Phil Heilman Economist
USGS Jessie Dickinson


List of ongoing activities/accomplishments:

• Established mechanism for technical partners to coordinate science efforts and define key technical issues that need additional research. CWA has developed a tracking system for the numerous components of the investigative studies currently underway with its many partners. The tracking system allows both the Technical Committee and Steering Committee members to direct (remove) – facilitate coordination and collaboration as is needed during research projects.

• Provides information regarding Watershed-based Plan which characterizes the watershed, identifies Pollution sources, and recommends best management strategies.

• Provides key resources for Public workshops on constructing erosion control structures, rainwater harvesting, drought-resistant landscaping, dir road design and maintenance.

• Coordinates guest speakers from technical agencies for monthly public forums address current watershed challenges and science projects.

• Facilitates land access and educational outreach for Benson Subwatershed hydrologic investigations.

• Provides training and volunteers for multiple research projects on the River.

• Provides additional community outreach/ technical library through website, articles for bi-monthly newsletter, publications and displays.

Technical References

  • Upper San Pedro Basin Active Management Area Review Report

    Arizona Department of Water Resources - March 2005.
    ( 219 pages. 26, 932 k.b. pdf)

    “The study described in this report is an evaluation of whether the conditions of the Upper San Pedro Basin satisfy the statutory criteria of an Active Management Area. This report contains a description of the current and projected water resources and water demand in the Basin, incorporating new information since the previous review in 1988. The report examines historic water use trends, evaluates the groundwater resources of the Basin, and projects impacts of future water use on Basin groundwater supplies. The report includes an evaluation of the incidence of subsidence or fissuring, and of the potential for groundwater quality degradation due to groundwater use. The report further describes and evaluates the impact that AMA practices would have on water use, and includes a summary of findings, the director’s determination of whether the Basin should be designated and recommendations”

    Link to Table of Contents
    Link to Summary Chapter Seven
    Link to Entire Report

  • Water Atlas Volume III – Southeastern Arizona Planning Area

    Arizona Department of Water Resources – November, 2006 (54 pages)

    Volume 3 – a comprehensive review of the Department of Water Resources of water supply and demand conditions. The Atlas is data-focused, consisting primarily of maps, tables, figures and concise text. The purpose is to assist local and regional planning efforts; identify water resource issues facing rural AZ communities; compile recent information and update prior statewide water assessments; identify areas requiring further study; and, develop and maintain an online rural AZ database. Volume I-Introduction is a companion report to each of the other volumes. Volume IX is an Executive Summary not yet published.

    Link to Volume 3

  • Depth to Bedrock in the Upper San Pedro Valley, Cochise County

    Southeastern Arizona, M.E. Gettings and Brenda Houser, 2000

    Link to report

  • Ecoregional Conservation Assessment Data for Arizona

    Ecoregional conservation assessment data synthesized by The Nature Conservancy for five ecoregions overlapping Arizona, including the Apache Highlands

    Link to Overview
    Link to Apache Highlands Report
    Link to Ecological Systems Map

  • Ecological and Biological Diversity of National Forests in Region 3

    The Nature Conservancy, 166 pages

    Link to Report

  • Trends in Streamflow of the San Pedro River, Southeastern Arizona

    Blakemore Thomas, 2006

    Link to report

  • Hydrologic Requirements of and Consumptive Ground-water Use by Riparian Vegetation Along the San Pedro River, Arizona, Chapters A-D

    Compiled by Leenhouts, James M.; Stromberg, Juliet C.; Scott, Russell L.; authors include Leenhouts, James M.; Stromberg, Juliet C.; Scott, Russell L.; Lite, Sharon J.; Dixon, Mark; Rychener, Tyler; Makings, Elizabeth; Williams, David G.;Goodrich, David C.; Cable, William L.; Levick, Lainie R.; McGuire, Roberta; Gazal, Rico M.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Ellsworth, Patrick; Huxman, Travis E., 2005

    Link to report

  • Desiccation Cracks

    AZGS Open File Report 04-01 “Giant Desiccation Cracks in Arizona”,
    R.C. Harris, 2004, 93 pages

    Link to Summary
    Link to 1955 Benson Map – AZGS
    Link to Google 2206 St. David Image
    Link to Visitation at St. David Site
    Link to Development of piping erosion conditions in the Benson Area, AZ
    Link to Soil Piping in Southeastern AZ
  • Nature-Oriented Visitors and Their Expenditures: Upper San Pedro River Basin

    Patricia Orr and Dr. Bonnie Colby, February 2002

    Link to PowerPoint review (pdf)
    Link to report
    Link to related topic
  • Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Don Pool and Jesse Dickinson, 2007

    Link to report
  • Hydrologic Requirements of and Evapotranspiration by Riparian Vegetation Along the San Pedro River, Arizona

    James Leenhouts, Julie Stromberg, Russell Scott , 2006

    Link to report

  • Ephemeral-stream Channel and Basin-floor Infiltration and Recharge in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona

    Alissa Coes, Don Pool, 2005

    Link to report

  • Mapping Ground Water in Three Dimensions – An Analysis of Airborne Geophysical Surveys of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona

    Jeff Wynn, 2006

    Link to report

  • Quantifying Mountain System Recharge in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Arizona, Using Geochemical Tracers

    by Arun Wahi, University of Arizona, 2005, (122 pages)

    Link to report
  • Timing and Duration of Flow in Ephemeral Streams of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Cochise County, Southeastern Arizona

    Bruce Gungle, 2006, revised 2007

    Link to report

  • Assessment of Urban-Enhanced Recharge in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Arizona

    James Callegary, 2004 – 2008

    Link to report
  • Monitoring ground-water/surface-water interactions of the San Pedro River in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Arizona

    Don Pool

    Link to report

  • Monitoring sustainability of ground-water use in the Sierra Vista Subwatershed, Arizona

    Bruce Gungle, May 2004 – October 2011

    Link to report

  • Investigation of the Hydrologic Monitoring Network of the Willcox and Douglas Basins of Southeastern Arizona: A Project of the Rural Watershed Initiative

    James Callegary, 2006-2008

    Link to report

  • Interbasin Groundwater Flow at the Benson Narrows, Arizona

    Jeanmarie Haney, Jim Lombard, March/April 2005

    Link to Southwest Hydrology

  • Entrenchment and Widening of the Upper San Pedro River , Arizona

    Richard Hereford, Geological Society of America, Special Paper 282, 1993

    Link to report

  • The Lower San Pedro River – Hydrology and Flow Restoration for Biodiversity Conservation

    Jeanmarie Haney. Paper presented at USFS Conference, May 11-15, 2004

    Link to paper

  • Riparian Areas Generate Property Value Premium for Landowners

    Dr. Bonnie Colby and Steven Wishart, January 2002

    Link to report

  • Layperson’s Guide to Arizona Water

    Joe Gelt, Susanna Eden, Gary Pitzer

    Link to report

  • Arizona Department of Environmental Quality

    The agency's Water Quality Division is responsible for the carrying out the mandates of the Arizona Environmental Quality Act (EQA) and the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These regulations require the State to establish water quality standards for aquifers and surface waters, conduct water quality monitoring and assessments, develop total maximum daily load studies on impaired waterbodies and to develop watershed plans, with local stakeholders, aimed at improving water quality through both permitted and voluntary programs.

    Link to ADEQ
  • Arizona Dept Water Resources

    “The Arizona Department of Water Resources works to secure long-term dependable water supplies for Arizona's communities. The Department administers and enforces Arizona’s groundwater code, and surface water rights laws (except those related to water quality); negotiates with external political entities to protect Arizona's Colorado River water supply; oversees the use of surface and groundwater resources under state jurisdiction; and represents Arizona in discussions of water rights with the federal government. In addition, the Department explores methods of augmenting water supplies to meet future demands, and develops policies that promote conservation and equitable distribution of water.”

    Link to Drought Status
    Link to AZ Hot Topics
  • Arizona Water Resources Center

    "The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) was established in 1957 to facilitate university research at all three Arizona universities on water problems of critical importance to the state and region."

    Link to The Weekly Wave e-News Digest - distributed each Friday, and contains WRRC news, events and much more. The Wave features weekly updates on the WRRC's ongoing Brown Bag Seminar Series - informal water-focused presentations open to the public - as well as information on the WRRC Annual Conference. Subscribe:
    Link to Arroyo Newsletter - a newsletter focusing on a single topic of timely interest to Arizona, is published annually in the spring.
  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    “The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is the principal Federal agency working
    with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their
    habitats for the continuing benefit of the American public.”

    Link to Website
    Link to Endangered Species Program
  • U of A Co-opertative Extension

    Link to Website
    Link to Water Wise program

  • Master Watershed Steward Program - No updates later than 2012

    The Master Watershed Steward program educates and trains citizens across the state of Arizona to serve as volunteers in the protection, restoration, monitoring, and conservation of their water and watersheds.

    Link to Archived Learning Modules

  • Upper San Pedro Partnership

    A consortium of 21 agencies and organizations working together to meet the long-term water needs of the Sierra Vista Sub watershed by achieving sustainable yield of the regional aquifer by 2011 and beyond to: 1) preserve the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA), and 2) ensure the long-term viability of Fort Huachuca.

    Link to Upper San Pedro Partnership Projects
    Link to BOR Water Appraisal Study

Some related links: